Describe the cell membrane and cellular organelles and their properties
Organelles are specialised functional subunits within a cell, typically contained within their own lipid bilayer.
Key organelles include:
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Golgi apparatus
- Produce ATP via aerobic metabolism
Only method of aerobic metabolism in the body.
- Mitochondria exist in greater numbers in more metabolically active cells
- Consist of two membranes (outer and inner), which create three spaces,
Outside the outer membrane.
- Intermembrane space
Between the membranes.
- Outer membrane separates mitochondria from cytoplasm, but contains pores allowing some substances (pyruvate, amino acids, fatty acids) to pass
- Inner membrane:
- Isolates the electron transport chain from the intermembrane (space between inner and outer membranes) space.
- Proteins on the inner membrane conduct the redox reactions important for ATP production
- Electron transport chain pumps hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space
- Inner mitochondrial matrix
Contents important in many metabolic processes:
- Citric acid cycle
- Fatty acid metabolism
- Urea cycle
- Haeme synthesis
- Chambers D, Huang C, Matthews G. Basic Physiology for Anaesthetists. Cambridge University Press. 2015.