Dantrolene is a ryanodine (RYR1) receptor antagonist, which prevents release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, uncoupling the process of excitation-contraction.
|Uses||MH, NMS, ecstasy intoxication, chronic muscle spasticity|
|Presentation||Vials of orange powder containing 20mg dantrolene and 3g mannitol, reconstituted with 60ml of H2O to form an alkaline solution.|
|Dosing||2.5mg.kg-1 IV every 10-15 minutes, up to 10mg.kg-1. Once resolved, continue giving 1mg.kg-1 every 4-6 hours for 24 hours.|
|Absorption||IV only, may cause skin necrosis if extravasates.|
|Distribution||85% protein bound|
|Metabolism||Hepatic metabolism to active 5-hydroxy-dantrolene|
|Elimination||Renal of metabolites, t1/2β of 12 hours|
|Resp||Respiratory failure due to skeletal muscle weakness|
|CVS||Volume overload due to large volume given with administration|
|MSK||Skeletal muscle relaxation|
- Peck TE, Hill SA. Pharmacology for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 4th Ed. Cambridge University Press. 2014.
- Petkov V. Essential Pharmacology For The ANZCA Primary Examination. Vesselin Petkov. 2012.
- ANZCA August/September 2011