Describe the physiology of bile and its metabolism
Bile is a dark green solution produced by the liver to facilitate absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (ADEK) through emulsification. Bile is:
- Produced by the liver at the rate of 1L per day
- Concentrated in the gallbladder
- Important in the absorbance of lipid and fat-soluble vitamins
- Formed from:
- Bile salts
The sodium and potassium salts of bile acids. Bile acids:
- Are are produced from cholesterol
- Are amphipathic, and act as emulsifiers of lipid
Break up large fat globules into smaller micelles, which can then be absorbed.
- Major bile acids include:
- Cholic acid
- Chenodeoxycholic acid
- Are absorbed in the terminal ileum, and recycled by the portal circulation
- Hall, JE, and Guyton AC. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 11th Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier. 2011.
- Kam P, Power I. Principles of Physiology for the Anaesthetist. 3rd Ed. Hodder Education. 2012.